Our ultimate goal is to develop artificial clinical intelligence that transforms dementia healthcare.

Previous efforts to prevent, diagnose and treat dementia have only been partially successful and a new more innovative approach is required. We believe that data science and artificial intelligence (AI) provide the key to unlocking complex patterns and disease signatures hidden in rich clinical, imaging, genetic, lifestyle, environmental and digital data.

We focus our research on key challenges which represent areas in which data science and AI can have a game-changing impact for dementia healthcare. Our research is enhanced by collaborations with patients, carers, clinicians, industry, charities, and healthcare providers worldwide.



Prevention is better than cure. Identifying potentially modifiable environmental and lifestyle risk factors may provide the key to preventing dementia.

Timely diagnosis

Many people are never diagnosed with dementia or are diagnosed during the later stages. Intelligent systems may help clinicians identify dementia disease signatures earlier and more accurately.

Deep dementia phenotyping

No disease modifying treatments are currently available. Drugs trials have consistently failed to cure established disease, and more sensitive clinical endpoints are needed to conduct trials earlier.

Selected Publications

Ranson JM, Kuźma E, Hamilton W, Lang I, Llewellyn DJ (2018). Case-finding in clinical practice: an appropriate strategy for dementia identification?. Alzheimer’s and Dementia: Translational Research and Clinical Interventions4, 288-296. Abstract.  Full text. See News

Zhou A, Taylor AE, Karhunen V, Zhan Y, Rovio SP, Lahti J, Sjögren P, Byberg L, Lyall DM, Auvinen J, et al (2018). Habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis in up to 415,530 participants. Sci Rep8(1). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Moore SF, Hamilton W, Llewellyn DJ (2018). Harnessing the power of intelligent machines to enhance primary care. Br J Gen Pract68(666), 6-7. Author URL.

Cadar D, Lassale C, Davies H, Llewellyn DJ, Batty GD, Steptoe A (2018). Individual and Area-Based Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Dementia Incidence in England: Evidence from a 12-Year Follow-up in the English Longitudinal Study of AgeingJAMA Psychiatry75(7), 723-732. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text. See News

Evans IEM, Llewellyn DJ, Matthews FE, Woods RT, Brayne C, Clare L, CFAS-Wales research team (2018). Social isolation, cognitive reserve, and cognition in healthy older people. PLoS One13(8). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Kuzma E, Lourida I, Moore SF, Levine DA, Ukoumunne O, Llewellyn D (2018). Stroke and dementia risk: a systematic review and meta-analysisAlzheimer’s & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, 1-11. Full textSee News

Kuźma E, Hannon E, Zhou A, Lourida I, Bethel A, Levine DA, Lunnon K, Thompson-Coon J, Hyppönen E, Llewellyn DJ, et al (2018). Which Risk Factors Causally Influence Dementia? a Systematic Review of Mendelian Randomization Studies. J Alzheimers Dis64(1), 181-193. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Kuźma E, Airdrie J, Littlejohns TJ, Lourida I, Thompson-Coon J, Lang IA, Scrobotovici M, Thacker EL, Fitzpatrick A, Kuller LH, et al (2017). Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Dementia Risk in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders31(2), 120-127. Abstract.

Hunt HA, Van Kampen S, Takwoingi Y, Llewellyn DJ, Pearson M, Hyde CJ (2017). The comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the General Practitioner assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) for identifying dementia in primary care: a systematic review protocol. Diagnostic and Prognostic Research1, 1-6. Full text.

Maddock J, Zhou A, Cavadino A, Kuźma E, Bao Y, Smart MC, Saum K-U, Schöttker B, Engmann J, Kjærgaard M, et al (2017). Vitamin D and cognitive function: a Mendelian randomisation study. Sci Rep7(1). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Farina N, Llewellyn DJ, Isaac MGEKN, Tabet N (2017). Vitamin E for Alzheimer’s dementia and mild cognitive impairment (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2017(4). Abstract.  Full text.

van Schoor NM, Comijs HC, Llewellyn DJ, Lips P (2016). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cognitive functioning. Int Psychogeriatr28(5), 759-768. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Ibrahim-Verbaas CA, Bressler J, Debette S, Schuur M, Smith AV, Bis JC, Davies G, Trompet S, Smith JA, Wolf C, et al (2016). GWAS for executive function and processing speed suggests involvement of the CADM2 gene. Mol Psychiatry21(2), 189-197. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Littlejohns TJ, Kos K, Henley WE, Kuźma E, Llewellyn DJ (2016). Vitamin D and Dementia. J Prev Alzheimers Dis3(1), 43-52. Abstract.  Author URL.

Kuźma E, Soni M, Littlejohns TJ, Ranson JM, van Schoor NM, Deeg DJH, Comijs H, Chaves PHM, Kestenbaum BR, Kuller LH, et al (2016). Vitamin D and Memory Decline: Two Population-Based Prospective Studies. J Alzheimers Dis50(4), 1099-1108. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Littlejohns TJ, Kos K, Henley WE, Lang IA, Annweiler C, Beauchet O, Chaves PHM, Kestenbaum BR, Kuller LH, Langa KM, et al (2016). Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities. PLoS One11(5). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Annweiler C, Dursun E, Féron F, Gezen-Ak D, Kalueff AV, Littlejohns T, Llewellyn DJ, Millet P, Scott T, Tucker KL, et al (2015). ‘Vitamin D and cognition in older adults’: Updated international recommendations. Journal of Internal Medicine277(1), 45-57. Abstract.  Full text.

Lourida I, Thompson-Coon J, Dickens CM, Soni M, Kuźma E, Kos K, Llewellyn DJ (2015). Parathyroid hormone, cognitive function and dementia: a systematic review. PLoS One10(5). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Littlejohns TJ, Kos K, Henley WE, Cherubini A, Ferrucci L, Lang IA, Langa KM, Melzer D, Llewellyn DJ (2015). Serum leptin and risk of cognitive decline in elderly italians. J Alzheimers Dis44(4), 1231-1239. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Kuźma E, Llewellyn DJ, Langa KM, Wallace RB, Lang IA (2014). History of alcohol use disorders and risk of severe cognitive impairment: a 19-year prospective cohort study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry22(10), 1047-1054. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Littlejohns TJ, Henley WE, Lang IA, Annweiler C, Beauchet O, Chaves PHM, Fried L, Kestenbaum BR, Kuller LH, Langa KM, et al (2014). Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease. Neurology83(10), 920-928. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text. 

Annweiler C, Llewellyn DJ, Beauchet O (2013). Low serum vitamin D concentrations in Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimers Dis33(3), 659-674. Abstract.  Author URL.

Lourida I, Soni M, Thompson-Coon J, Purandare N, Lang IA, Ukoumunne OC, Llewellyn DJ (2013). Mediterranean diet, cognitive function, and dementia: a systematic review. Epidemiology24(4), 479-489. Abstract.

Annweiler C, Montero-Odasso M, Llewellyn DJ, Richard-Devantoy S, Duque G, Beauchet O (2013). Meta-analysis of memory and executive dysfunctions in relation to vitamin D. J Alzheimers Dis37(1), 147-171. Abstract.  Author URL.

Pludowski P, Holick MF, Pilz S, Wagner CL, Hollis BW, Grant WB, Shoenfeld Y, Lerchbaum E, Llewellyn DJ, Kienreich K, et al (2013). Vitamin D effects on musculoskeletal health, immunity, autoimmunity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, fertility, pregnancy, dementia and mortality-A review of recent evidence. Autoimmunity Reviews12(10), 976-989. Abstract.

Brouwer-Brolsma EM, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Bouillon R, Feskens EJM, Gallagher CJ, Hypponen E, Llewellyn DJ, Stoecklin E, Dierkes J, Kies AK, et al (2013). Vitamin D: Do we get enough?: a discussion between vitamin D experts in order to make a step towards the harmonisation of dietary reference intakes for vitamin D across Europe. Osteoporosis International24(5), 1567-1577. Abstract.

Pilling LC, Harries LW, Powell J, Llewellyn DJ, Ferrucci L, Melzer D (2012). Genomics and successful aging: grounds for renewed optimism?. J Gerontol a Biol Sci Med Sci67(5), 511-519. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Harries LW, Bradley-Smith RM, Llewellyn DJ, Pilling LC, Fellows A, Henley W, Hernandez D, Guralnik JM, Bandinelli S, Singleton A, et al (2012). Leukocyte CCR2 expression is associated with mini-mental state examination score in older adults. Rejuvenation Res15(4), 395-404. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Stephan BCM, Hunter S, Harris D, Llewellyn DJ, Siervo M, Matthews FE, Brayne C (2012). The neuropathological profile of mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a systematic review. Molecular Psychiatry17(11), 1056-1076. Abstract.

Soni M, Kos K, Lang IA, Jones K, Melzer D, Llewellyn DJ (2012). Vitamin D and cognitive function. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl243, 79-82. Abstract.  Author URL.

Balion C, Griffith LE, Strifler L, Henderson M, Patterson C, Heckman G, Llewellyn DJ, Raina P (2012). Vitamin D, cognition, and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurology79(13), 1397-1405. Abstract.  Author URL.

Okura T, Plassman BL, Steffens DC, Llewellyn DJ, Potter GG, Langa KM (2011). Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of institutionalization and death: the aging, demographics, and memory study. J Am Geriatr Soc59(3), 473-481. Abstract.  Author URL.

Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Langa KM, Melzer D (2011). Vitamin D and cognitive impairment in the elderly U.S. population. J Gerontol a Biol Sci Med Sci66(1), 59-65. Abstract.  Author URL.

Dickens AP, Lang IA, Langa KM, Kos K, Llewellyn DJ (2011). Vitamin D, cognitive dysfunction and dementia in older adults. CNS Drugs25(8), 629-639. Abstract.  Author URL.

Cluett C, Brayne C, Clarke R, Evans G, Matthews F, Rubinsztein DC, Huppert F, Llewellyn DJ, Rice N, Henley W, et al (2010). Polymorphisms in LMNA and near a SERPINA gene cluster are associated with cognitive function in older people. Neurobiol Aging31(9), 1563-1568. Abstract.  Author URL.

Okura T, Plassman BL, Steffens DC, Llewellyn DJ, Potter GG, Langa KM (2010). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and their association with functional limitations in older adults in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study. J Am Geriatr Soc58(2), 330-337. Abstract.  Author URL.

Llewellyn DJ, Langa KM, Friedland RP, Lang IA (2010). Serum albumin concentration and cognitive impairment. Curr Alzheimer Res7(1), 91-96. Abstract.  Author URL.

Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Matthews FE, Plassman BL, Rogers MA, Morgenstern LB, Fisher GG, Kabeto MU, Langa KM (2010). Vascular health, diabetes, APOE and dementia: the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study. Alzheimers Res Ther2(3). Abstract.  Author URL.

Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Langa KM, Muniz-Terrera G, Phillips CL, Cherubini A, Ferrucci L, Melzer D (2010). Vitamin D and risk of cognitive decline in elderly persons. JAMA Intern Med170(13), 1135-1141. Abstract.  Author URL.

Langa KM, Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Weir DR, Wallace RB, Kabeto MU, Huppert FA (2009). Cognitive health among older adults in the United States and in England. BMC Geriatr9 Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Potter GG, Plassman BL, Burke JR, Kabeto MU, Langa KM, Llewellyn DJ, Rogers MAM, Steffens DC (2009). Cognitive performance and informant reports in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia in African Americans and whites. Alzheimers Dement5(6), 445-453. Abstract.  Author URL.

Llewellyn DJ, Lang LA, Langa KM, Naughton F, Matthews FE (2009). Exposure to secondhand smoke and cognitive impairment in non-smokers: National cross sectional study with cotinine measurement. BMJ (Online)338(7695). Abstract.  Full text.

Llewellyn DJ, Matthews FE (2009). Increasing levels of semantic verbal fluency in elderly English adults. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn16(4), 433-445. Abstract.  Author URL.

Lang IA, Hubbard RE, Andrew MK, Llewellyn DJ, Melzer D, Rockwood K (2009). Neighborhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status, and frailty in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc57(10), 1776-1780. Abstract.  Author URL.

Rogers MAM, Plassman BL, Kabeto M, Fisher GG, McArdle JJ, Llewellyn DJ, Potter GG, Langa KM (2009). Parental education and late-life dementia in the United States. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol22(1), 71-80. Abstract.  Author URL.

Llewellyn DJ, Langa KM, Lang IA (2009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and cognitive impairment. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol22(3), 188-195. Abstract.  Author URL.

Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Langa KM, Huppert FA (2008). Cognitive function and psychological well-being: findings from a population-based cohort. Age Ageing37(6), 685-689. Abstract.  Author URL.

Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Xie J, Huppert FA, Melzer D, Langa KM (2008). Framingham Stroke Risk Profile and poor cognitive function: a population-based study. BMC Neurol8 Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Lang IA, Llewellyn DJ, Langa KM, Wallace RB, Huppert FA, Melzer D (2008). Neighborhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status, and cognitive function in older people: analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. J Am Geriatr Soc56(2), 191-198. Abstract.  Author URL.